Many recent censuses are available on the web. Stokes Library holdings include the International Population Census microfilm collection which includes summary census materials for countries throughout the world from the mid-1800s to the present. Guides to the collection include the following:

Census Holdings in electronic format at Princeton
Last modified 6-11-2014

(For datasets available through IPUMS or ACAP, registration is required through their sites)
  Summary Data Microdata
Argentina 2001, 2011 1970, 1980, 1991, 2001, 2010
Armenia   2001
Australia 1911-1991, 1996+, 1981, 1986
Austria   1971, 1981, 1991, 2001
Bangladesh Current 1991, 2001, 2011
Belarus   1999
Bolivia   1976, 1992, 2001
Botswana   1981, 1991
Brazil 1991, 2000, 2010 1960,1970 (5%) ,1970 (1%), 1980,1991,2000, 2010
Burkina Faso 1985, 1996, 2006
Cambodia   1998, 2008
Cameroon   1976, 1987, 2005
Canada 1996, 2001, 2006, 2011 1871, 1881, 1901,1971(ICPSR),1971 (IPUMS), 1976, 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2001, 2006
Chile 2002 1960,1970,1982,1992,2002
China 1982, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010 1982,1990
Colombia 2005 1964,1973,1985,1993,2005
Costa Rica 1973, 1984, 2000, 2011 1963,1973,1984,2000
Cuba   2002
Denmark Misc. Years 1801
Ecuador   1962,1974,1982,1990,2001
Egypt   1996, 2006, 2010
El Salvador   1992, 2007
Estonia 2000  
Fiji   1966, 1976, 1986, 1996, 2007
France 1999+ 1962,1968,1975,1982,1990, 1999, 2006
Gambia   1973, 1983, 1993
Germany   1970 (West), 1971 (East), 1981 (East), 1987 (West)
Ghana   2000
Greece   1971, 1981, 1991, 2001
Guinea   1983, 1996
Haiti   1971, 1982, 2003
Hong Kong 2001, 2006, 2011  
Hungary   1970, 1980, 1990, 2001
India 1991 , 2001, 2001, 2011 (Website)

1983 (Employment Survey), 1987 (Employment Survey), 1993 (Employment Survey), 1999 (Employment Survey), 2001 (Housing), IPUMs (1983, 1987, 1993, 1999, 2004 -- all employment surveys)

Indonesia 1971+ 1971, 1976, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000,2005, 2010
Iran   2006
Iraq   1997
Ireland IPUMS (1971, 1979, 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2002, 2006)
1981 (Small Area), 1986 (Small Area), 1991(Small Area), 1996 (Small Area; 5%), 2002 (Small Area; 5%), 2006(Small Area), IPUMS (1971, 1979, 1981, 1986, 1991, 1996, 2002, 2006)
Israel Misc. Years 1972, 1983, 1995
Italy Misc. Years 1705 (Turin) 15th Century (Florence/Verona),1991, 2001, 2001 (IPUMS)
Jamaica   1982, 1991, 2001
Japan 1995+  
Jordan 2004
Kenya   1969, 1979, 1989,1999, 2009
Kyrgz Republic   1999, 2009
Lesotho l 1986, 1996
Liberia 1843, 1974
Malawi   1977, 1987, 1998, 2008
Malaysia   1970, 1980, 1991, 2000
Mali   1987, 1998
Mexico 1990, 2000, 1895+ 1960,1970,1990,1995,2000,2005, 2010
Mongolia 1989, 2000
Morocco   1982, 1994, 2004
Nepal 2011 2001
Netherlands 1795-1971 1960, 1971, 2001
New Zealand 1996+  
Nicaragua   1971, 1995, 2005
Nigeria   1991
Northern Ireland 1991
Norway   1865, 1875, 1900
Pakistan   1973, 1981, 1998
Palestine 1967 1997, 2007
Panama   1960,1970,1980,1990,2000, 2010
Peru   1993, 2007
Philippines 2000 1990, 1995, 2000
Portugal   1981, 1991, 2001
Puerto Rico   1910, 1920, 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005
Romania 2002 1977, 1992, 2002
Russia 2002  
Rwanda 1991, 2002
Saint Lucia    1980, 1991
Senegal   1976, 1988, 2002
Sierra Leone   2004
Slovenia   2002
South Africa 1996+ 1970, 1980, 1985, 1991,1996,2001, 2007
Spain 1900+ 1981, 1991, 2001
Sri Lanka 2001+  
Sudan 1973, 2008
South Sudan   2008
Swaziland   1986
Switzerland   1970-2000 (direct), 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000 (IPUMS)
Tanzania
1988, 2002
Thailand   1970, 1980, 1990, 2000
Turkey   1985, 1990, 2000
Uganda   1991, 2001
United Kingdom 2001, 2011

1851-1861, 1881-1911 (England & Wales); 1881-1911; 1851-1901 (Scotland); 1881 (England, Wales, Scotland) , 1991, 2001 (CDs), 2001 (IPUMS)

United States 1790-1960, 1990, 2000, 2010 1850+
Uruguay   1963, 1975, 1985, 1996, 2006
Venezuela   1971,1981,1990,2001
Vietnam   1989,1999, 2009
Zambia   1980, 1990